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        • Product name: Nd:YVO4
        • Product ID: 114
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        Neodymium Doped Yttrium Orthovanadate (Nd:YVO4)

        Nd:YVO4 is the most efficient laser host crystal for diode pumping among the current commercial laser crystals, especially, for low to middle power density. This is mainly for Nd:YVO4's absorption and emission features surpassing Nd:YAG. Pumped by laser diodes, Nd:YVO4 crystal has been incorporated with high NLO coefficient crystals (LBO,BBO,or KTP) to frequency-shift the output from the near infrared to green, blue, or even UV. This incorporation to construct all solid state lasers is an ideal laser tool that can cover the most widespread applications of lasers, including machining, material processing, spectroscopy, wafer inspection, light displays, medical diagnostics, laser printing, and data storage, etc. It has been shown that Nd:YVO4 based diode pumped solid state lasers are rapidly occupying the markets traditionally dominated by water-cooled ion lasers and lamp-pumped lasers, especially when compact design and single-longitudinal-mode outputs are required.

        Nd:YVO4’s advantages over Nd:YAG

        •  As high as about five times larger absorption efficient over a wide pumping bandwidth around 808 nm  (therefore, the dependency on pumping wavelength is much lower and a strong tendency to the single    mode soutput)
        • As large as three times larger stimulated emission cross-section at the lasing wavelength of 1064nm
        •  Lower lasing threshold and higher slope efficiency
        • As a uniaxial crystal with a large birefringence, the emission is only a linearly polarized.   

        CASTECH Provides Nd:YVO4 as following

        • Various doping concentration from 0.1% to 3%
        •  Doping concentration tolerance:±0.05%(atm%<1%),±0.1%(atm%≥1%)
        • Various size bulk and finished high quality Nd:YVO4 crystals up to Φ35x50mm3 and Φ20x20mm3, respectively;
        • 10,000 pcs of Nd:YVO4 devices per month in sizes 3x3x0.5 to 4x4x8 mm
        • With quick delivery
        • With competitive price

        Basic Properties of Nd:YVO4

        Atomic Density: 1.26x1020 atoms/cm3 (Nd1.0%)
        Crystal Structure: Zircon Tetragonal, space group D4h-I4/amd
        Density; 4.22g/cm3
        Mohs Hardness: 4-5(Glass-like)
        Thermal Expansion Coefficient(300K): αa=4.43x10-6/K
        Thermal Conductivity Coefficient(300K): //C:0.0523W/cm/K

        Optical Properties of Nd:YVO4: 

        Lasing wavelength: 1064nm,1342nm
        Thermal optical coefficient (300K): dno/dT=8.5×10-6/K
        Stimulated emission cross-section: 25×10-19cm2 @ 1064nm
        Fluorescent lifetime: 90μs(1% Nd doping)
        Absorption coefficient: 31.4cm-1 @810nm
        Intrinsic loss: 0.02cm-1 @1064nm
        Gain bandwidth: 0.96nm@1064nm
        Polarized laser emission: π polarization; parallel to optic axis(c-axis)
        Diode pumped optical to optical efficiency: >60%
        Sellemeier equations (λ in um)



        Laser Properties of Nd:YVO4

        1. One of the most attractive character of Nd:YVO4 is, compared with Nd:YAG, it has 5 times larger absorption coefficient in a broader absorption bandwidth around the 808 nm peak pump wavelength, which just matches the standard of high power laser diodes currently available. This means a smaller Nd:YVO4 crystal that could be used for the laser, leading to a more compact laser system. For a given output power, this also means a lower power level at which the laser diode operates, thus extending the lifetime of the expensive laser diode. The broader absorption bandwidth of Nd:YVO4 which may reaches 2.4 to 6.3 times that of Nd:YAG, is also valuable. Besides more efficient pumping, Nd:YVO4 also means a broader range of selection of diode specifications. This will be helpful to laser system makers for wider tolerance and lower cost choice.

        2. Nd:YVO4 crystal has larger stimulated emission cross-sections, both at 1064nm and 1342nm. When a-axis cut Nd:YVO4 crystal lasing at 1064m, it is about 4 times higher than that of Nd:YAG, while at 1340nm the stimulated cross-section is 18 times larger, which leads to a CW operation completely outperforming Nd:YAG at 1320nm. These make Nd:YVO4 laser be easy to maintain a strong single line emission at the two wavelengths.

        3. Another important character of Nd:YVO4 lasers is, because it is an uniaxial rather than a high symmetry of cubic as Nd:YAG, what it emits is only a linearly polarized, thus avoiding undesired birefringent effects on the frequency conversion. Although the lifetime of Nd:YVO4 is about 2.7 times shorter than that of Nd:YAG, its slope efficiency can be still quite high for a proper design of laser cavity, because of its high pump quantum efficiency.

        The major laser properties of Nd:YVO4 vs Nd:YAG are listed in Table below, including stimulated emission cross-sections (σ), Absorption Coefficient (α) Fluorescent lifetime (τ),Absorption Length (La),threshold Power (Pth) and Pump Quantum Efficiency (ηs).

                                                                                              Laser Properties of Nd:YVO4 vs Nd:YAG


        LASER CRYSTAL DOPING(atm%) σ
        Nd:YVO4(a-cut) 1.0
        Nd:YVO4(c-cut) 1.1 7 9.2 90   231 45.5
        Nd:YAG 0.85 6 7.1 230 1.41 115 38.6

        Typical Results of Nd:YVO4:
        • Diode pumped Nd:YVO4 laser output comparing with diode pumped Nd:YAG laser.


        Crystals Size(mm3) Pump Power Output (at 1064nm)
        Nd:YVO4 3x3x1 850mW 350mW
        Nd:YVO4 3x3x5 15W 6W
        Nd:YAG 3x3x2 850mW 34mW

        • Diode pumped Nd:YVO4+KTP green laser.

        • 8W green laser was generated from a 15W LD pumped 0.5% Nd:YVO4 with intracavity KTP.
        • 200mW green outputs are generated from 1W LD pumped 2% Nd:YVO4 lasers by using CASTECH’s 2x2x5mm KTP and 3x3x1mm Nd:YVO4

        CASTECH provides Nd:YVO4 with the following coatings

        • Both ends AR/AR-1064/808nm, R<0.2%@1064nm,R<2%@808nm
        • S1:HR@1064&532 nm,HT808 nm, R>99.8%@1064&532nm,T>90%@808nm S2:AR@1064&532 nm, R<0.2%@1064nm,R<0.5%@532nm
        • S1:HR@1064,HT808, R>99.8%@1064nm,T>95%@808nm S2:AR@1064, R<0.1%@1064nm.
        • S1,S2 AR-coated, S3:gold/chrome plated.
        • Both ends AR/AR-1064 nm; S3:AR-808 nm
        • Other coatings are available upon request.

        CASTECH Warranty on Nd:YVO4 Specifications:

        • Dimension tolerance:(W±0.1mm)x(H±0.1mm)x(L+0.5/-0.1mm)  (L≥2.5mm)
                                                  (W±0.1mm)x(H±0.1mm)x(L+0.2/-0.1mm)  (L<2.5mm) 
        • Transmitting wavefront distortion:less than λ/4 @ 633nm

        • Clear aperture:>90% central area
        •    Chamfer: ≤0.2mm@45
        •     Chip: ≤0.1mm
        • Flatness: λ/8 @ 633 nm (L≥2.5mm), λ/4 @ 633nm  (L<2.5mm)
        • Scratch/Dig code: 10/5 to MIL-PRF-13830B
        • Parallelism:better than 20 arc seconds
        • Perpendicularity: 5 arc minutes
        • Angle tolerance:0.5°
        • Damage threshold[GW/cm2 ]: >1 for 1064nm, TEM00, 10ns, 10Hz (AR-coated)
        • Quality Warranty Period:one year under proper use.