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  • CWO

  • Cadmium tungstate (CdWO4, CWO) single crystal is an important scintillation materials applied in the radiation detection technology, especially for security checking , industrial CT and medical imaging. Large-size CWO single crystals with high quality were grown successfully by vertical Bridgman process in our company in recent years. CWO single crystal has a density as high as 7.9 g/cm-3 without any deliquescence. Under high-energy rays radiation such as X-rays or γ-rays, the crystal exhibits the luminescence output with a central wavelength of 470 nm. The crystal possesses a series of scintillation properties such as a relative light yield 2~3 times of BGO crystal, a low afterglow only 10-2 grade relative to CsI(Tl) crystal and a γ-ray radiation hardness of 107 rad. Our company provide the mass products of CWO wafers and array elements, which can meet the technical requirements for radiation detection devices.
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Tab.  Materials properties of CWO single crystal

 

Crystal orientation

<100>,<010>

 

Crystal structure

 

 

Monoclinic system,Space group P2/c

 

Crystal lattice

 

a = 5.029Å,b = 5.859Å,c = 5.074 Å;α = γ = 90º,β = 91.47º 

Melting point

1276ºC

Density

7.90g/cm3

 

 

Thermal expansion coefficient

6.39×10-6 /K(<100>),1.09 × 10-5 /K(<010>)

 

Refractive index

 

2.3

 

 

Hardness

 

4.5 Mohs

 

Cleavage

 

(010)

 

 

Colour

 

Nearly colorless to pale yellowish brown 

 

 

Deliquescence

None

 

Central wavelength of luminescence

470 nm

 

Relative light yield index

20-30   (NaI(Tl) crystal with a light yield

 index 100 is used as reference)

 

Absolute light yield

2760 ± 50 p.e /MeV

 

Energy resolution

7.8-13%

 

Luminescence decay time

 

1.3 μs (36%, fast),11.5 μs (64%, slow) 

 

Afterglow

 

less than 0.04%@3 ms

 

γ-ray radiation hardness

 

107 rad

 

 

Figures:

 

Fig. 1  Ultroviolet-visible transmission spectra

 

                         

 Fig.2  X-ray stimulated luminescence spectra

 

 

Fig. 3 Energy spectrum and light yield of CWO wafer under γ-ray excitation

 

 

                      

Fig. 4  Luminescence decay time of CWO wafer under UV excitation wafer under γ-ray excitation

 

Fig. 5  Afterglow of CWO crystal less than 0.04%@3ms under γ-ray excitation which only 10-2 grade relative to CsI(Tl) crystal

 

 

Fig.6  Relative light yield uniformity of crystal array elements

 

 

 

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  • Scintillation Crystals_Cadmium Tungstate Scintillation Crystal(CdWO4, CWO).pdf