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Nd:YVO4 - Neodymium Doped Yttrium Orthovanadate

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Nd:YVO4 - Neodymium Doped Yttrium Orthovanadate
Nd:YVO4 - Neodymium Doped Yttrium Orthovanadate
高掺NdYVO4
3
  • Nd:YVO4 - Neodymium Doped Yttrium Orthovanadate

  • Nd:YVO4 is the most efficient laser crytal for diode pumping among the current laser crystals, especially, for low to middle power, mainly for its absorption and emission features surpassing Nd:YAG.
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Introduction

Neodymium Doped Yttrium Orthovanadate (Nd:YVO4) is the most efficient laser host crystal for diode pumping among the current commercial laser crystals, especially, for low to middle power density. This is mainly for its absorption and emission features surpassing Nd:YAG. Pumped by laser diodes, Nd:YVO4 crystal has been incorporated with high NLO coefficient crystals (LBO, BBO, or KTP) to frequency-shift the output from the near infrared to green, blue, or even UV. This incorporation to construct all solid state lasers is an ideal laser tool that can cover the most widespread applications of lasers, including machining, material processing, spectroscopy, wafer inspection, light displays, medical diagnostics, laser printing, and data storage, etc. It has been shown that Nd:YVO4 based diode pumped solid state lasers are rapidly occupying the markets traditionally dominated by water-cooled ion lasers and lamp-pumped lasers, especially when compact design and single-longitudinal-mode output are required.

  

Nd:YVO4's advantages over Nd:YAG

  • As high as about five times larger absorption efficient over a wide pumping bandwidth around 808 nm (therefore, the dependency on pumping wavelength is much lower and a strong tendency to the single mode output)
  • As large as three times larger stimulated emission cross-section at the lasing wavelength of 1064 nm
  • Lower lasing threshold and higher slope efficiency
  • As a uniaxial crystal with large birefringence, the emission is only linearly polarized


CASTECH Provides

  • Various doping concentrations from 0.1 to 3% 
  • Doping concentration tolerance: ± 0.05% (atm% < 1%), ± 0.1% (atm%  ≧ 1%)
  • High quality Nd:YVO4 crystals size up to Φ20 x 40 mm3
  • 10,000 pcs of Nd:YVO4 devices per month in sizes 3x3x0.5mm3 to 4x4x30 mm3
  • Fast delivery
  • Competitive price

 

Figure 1. Absorption Curve of 0.5% Nd:YVO4 (thickness 4 mm)

 

Table 1. Basic Properties

Crystal Structure

Zircon Tetragonal, space group D4h-I4/amd

Lattice Parameter

a = b = 7.1193 Å, c = 6.2892 Å

Density

4.22 g/cm3

Atomic Density

1.26 ×1020 atoms/cm3 (Nd 1.0%)

Mohs Hardness

4-5 (Glass-like)

Thermal Expansion Coefficient (300K)

αa = 4.43 × 10-6/K

αc = 11.37 × 10-6/K

Thermal Conductivity Coefficient (300K)

// C: 0.0523 W/cm/K

⊥C: 0.0510 W/cm/K

Lasing Wavelength

1064 nm, 1342 nm

Thermal Optical Coefficient (300K)

dno/dT = 8.5 × 10-6 /K

dne/dT = 2.9 × 10-6 /K

Stimulated Emission Cross-section

25 x 10-19 cm2 @1064 nm

Fluorescent Lifetime

90 μs (1% Nd doped)

Absorption Coefficient

31.4 cm-1 @810 nm

Intrinsic Loss

0.02 cm-1 @1064 nm

Gain Bandwidth

0.96 nm @1064 nm

Polarized Laser Emission

π polarization; parallel to optical axis (c-axis)

Diode Pumped Optical to Optical Efficiency

> 60%

Sellmeier Equations (λ in µm)

no2 = 3.77834 + 0.069736 / (λ2 - 0.04724) - 0.010813 λ2

ne2 = 4.59905 + 0.110534 / (λ2 - 0.04813) - 0.012676 λ2


Laser Properties of Nd:YVO4
1. One most attractive character of Nd:YVO4 is, compared with Nd:YAG, its 5 times larger absorption coefficient in a broader absorption bandwidth around the 808 nm peak pump wavelength, which just matches the standard of high power laser diodes currently available. This means a smaller crystal that could be used for the laser, leading to a more compact laser system. For a given output power, this also means a lower power level at which the laser diode operates, thus extending the lifetime of the expensive laser diode. The broader absorption bandwidth of Nd:YVO4 which may reaches 2.4 to 6.3 times that of Nd:YAG. Besides more efficient pumping, it also means a broader range of selection of diode specifications. This will be helpful to laser system makers for wider tolerance for lower cost choice.

 

     2. Nd:YVO4 crystal has larger stimulated emission cross-section, both at 1064 nm and 1342 nm. When a-axis cut Nd:YVO4 crystal lasing at 1064 nm, it is about 4 times higher than that of Nd:YAG, while at 1340 nm the stimulated cross-section is 18 times larger, which leads to a CW operation completely outperforming Nd:YAG at 1320 nm. These make Nd:YVO4 laser be easy to maintain a strong single line emission at the two wavelengths.

     3. Another important character of Nd:YVO4 lasers is, because it is an uniaxial rather than a high symmetry of cubic as Nd:YAG, it only emits a linearly polarized laser, thus avoiding undesired birefringent effects on the frequency conversion. Although the lifetime of Nd:YVO4 is about 2.7 times shorter than that of Nd:YAG, its slope efficiency can be still quite high for a proper design of laser cavity, because of its high pump quantum efficiency.

      The major laser properties of Nd:YVO4 vs Nd:YAG are listed in Table below, including stimulated emission cross-sections(σ), absorption coefficient (α), fluorescent lifetime (τ), absorption length (Lα), threshold power (Pth) and pump quantum efficiency (ηS).

 

Table 2. Laser Properties of Nd:YVO4 vs Nd:YAG

Laser Crystal

Doping

(atm%)

σ

(×10-19 cm2)

α

(cm-1)

τ

(μs)

(mm)

Pth

(mW)

ηS

(%)

Nd:YVO(a-cut)

1.0

25

31.2

90

0.32

30

52

2.0

25

72.4

50

0.14

78

48.6

Nd:YVO(c-cut)

1.1

7

9.2

90

 

231

45.5

Nd:YAG

0.85

6

7.1

230

1.41

115

38.6

 

Nd:YVO4's parameters

Table 3. Specifications

Dimension Tolerance

(W ± 0.1 mm) × (H ± 0.1 mm) × (L + 0.5/-0.1 mm)  (L≧2.5 mm)

(W ± 0.1 mm) × (H ± 0. 1 mm) × (L + 0.1/-0.1 mm)  (L< 2.5mm)

Clear Aperture 

Central 90% of the diameter

Surface Quality (Scratch/Dig)

10/5 to MIL-PRF-13830B

Flatness

≦ λ/8 @633 nm (L≧2.5 mm)

≦ λ/4 @633 nm (L<2.5 mm)

Transmitted Wavefront Distortion

≦ λ/4 @633 nm

Parallelism

20 arc sec

Perpendicularity

≦ 15 arc min

Angle Tolerance

≦ ± 0.5°

Chamfer

≦ 0.2 mm × 45°

Chip

≦ 0.1 mm

Damage Threshold 

> 1 GW/cm2 @1064 nm, 10 ns, 10 Hz (AR-coated) 

Quality Warranty Period

One year under proper use


CASTECH provides the following coatings 

  • Both ends AR/AR-1064/808 nm, R < 0.2% @1064 nm, R < 0.5% @808 nm, or R < 0.1% @1064 nm, R<3% @808 nm
  • S1: HR-1064/532 nm, HT-808 nm, R > 99.8% @1064/532 nm, T>90% @808 nm S2: AR-1064/532 nm, R < 0.2% @1064 nm, R < 0.5% @532 nm
  • S1: HR-1064 nm, HT-808 nm, R > 99.8% @1064 nm, T > 95% @808 nm S2: AR-1064 nm, R < 0.1% @1064 nm
  • S1, S2 AR-coated, S3: gold/chrome plated
  • Both ends AR/AR-1064 nm; S3: AR-808 nm
  • Other coatings are available upon request
  • Laser Crystals_Neodymium Doped Yttrium Orthovanadate (Nd_YVO4).pdf

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    2020-11-19 11:07:30
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