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YVO4 - Yttrium Orthovanadate
YVO4 - Yttrium Orthovanadate
YVO4
1
  • YVO4 - Yttrium Orthovanadate

  • As an excellent birefringent crystal, YVO4 is widely applied in fiber optic isolators and circulators, interleavers, beam dispalcers and other polarizing optics (refer to Table 1).
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Introduction

The Yttrium Orthovanadate (YVO4) is a positive uniaxial crystal grown with Czochralski method. It has good temperature stability, physical and mechanical properties. It is ideal for optical polarizing components because of its wide transparency range and large birefringence. It is an excellent synthetic substitute for Calcite (CaCO3) and Rutile (TiO2) crystals in many applications including fiber optic isolators and circulators, interleavers, beam displacers and other polarizing optics ( refer to Table 1).

 

Table 1. Comparison of  Basic Properties Between YVO4 and Other Birefringent Crystals

 

YVO4

TiO2

CaCO3

LiNbO3

Thermal Expansion (/℃)

c-axis

11.4 × 10-6

9.2 × 10-6

26.3 × 10-6

16.7 × 10-6

a-axis

4.4 × 10-6

7.1 × 10-6

5.4 × 10-6

7 × 10-6

Refractive Index

no

1.9447 @1550 nm

2.454 @1530 nm

1.6346 @1497 nm

2.2151 @1440 nm

ne

2.1486 @1550 nm

2.710 @1530 nm

1.4774 @1497 nm

2.1413 @1440 nm

Birefringence (ne-no)

0.2039 @1550 nm

0.256 @1530 nm

-0.1572 @1497 nm

-0.0738 @1440 nm

Mohs Hardness

5

6.5

3

5

Deliquescence

None

None

Weak

None

Transparency Range

0.4-5 μm

0.4-5 μm

0.35-2.3 μm

0.4-5 μm

 

 

A reliable supplier of YVO4 crystals

CASTECH is one of the earliest companies who have mastered the advanced growth technique of YVO4 crystal. Now CASTECH has completed its strong mass-production line that can provide:

  • Various size of bulk and finished high quality YVO4 crystals up to φ35 x 50mm3 and φ20 x 20mm3, respectively;
  • Large quantity YVO4 wedges and displacers used for fiber optical isolators and circulators, interleavers, in size of 1.25 x 1.25x0.5mm3 to 3 x 3 x 15mm3 to meet OEM customer's requirement;
  • Quick delivery;
  • Competitive price;
  • Strict quality control;
  • Technical support.

 Table 2. Basic Properties 

Transparency Range

High transmittance from 0.4 to 5 μm

Crystal  Structure

Zircon Tetragonal, space group D4h

Lattice Parameter

a = b = 7.12 Å; c = 6.29 Å

Density

4.22 g/cm3

Mohs Hardness

5, glass-like

Hygroscopic Susceptibility

Non-hygroscopic

Thermal Expansion Coefficient

αa = 4.43×10-6 /K; αc= 11.37×10-6 /K

Thermal Conductivity Coefficient

// C: 5.23 W/m/K; ⊥C: 5.10 W/m/K 

Thermal Optical Coefficient

dna/dT = 8.5×10-6 /K; dnc/dT = 3.0×10-6 /K

Crystal Class

Positive uniaxial with no = na= nb, ne = nc

Refractive Indices, Birefringence

(Δn = ne- no) and Walk-off Angle at 45°(ρ)

no = 1.9929, ne = 2.2154, Δn = 0.2225, ρ = 6.04 at 630 nm

no = 1.9500, ne = 2.1554, Δn = 0.2054, ρ = 5.72o  at1300 nm

no = 1.9447, ne = 2.1486, Δn = 0.2039, ρ = 5.69o  at 550 nm

Sellmeier Equation (λ in µm)

no2 = 3.77834 + 0.069736 / (λ2 - 0.04724) - 0.0108133 λ2

ne2 = 4.59905 + 0.110534 / (λ2 - 0.04813) - 0.0122676 λ2

 

Applications
YVO4 crystals are widely used in fiber-optic isolators, beam displacers and optical circulators, etc.

 1. Specifications of birefringent wedges for fiber-optic isolators

Aperture

1.0 × 1.0 mm2  to 4 × 4 mm2

Dimension Tolerance

±0.1mm

Wedge Angle Tolerance

±0.1 °

Optical Axis Orientation

± 0.5 ° 

Flatness

 λ/4 @633 nm

Surface Quality (Sctrach/Dig)

 20/10 to MIL-PRF-13830B

AR-Coating

 R < 0.2% @1550 or 1310 nm

Standard Size

1.25 mm × 1.25 mm × 0. 5 mm with

13 ° or 15 ° wedge, phi = 22.5 ° 

 

 

 

 

2. Specifications of YVO4 beam displacers for fiber-optic circulators or interleaver

Dimension Tolerance

(W ± 0.05 mm) × (H ± 0.05 mm) × (L ± 0.1 mm)

Optical Axis Orientation

± 0.5 °

Parallelism

20 arc sec 

Perpendicularity

≦ 15 arc min  

Flatness

λ/4 @633 nm 

Surface Quality (Scratch/Dig)

20/10 to MIL-PRF-13830B

AR-Coating

R<0.2% @1550 nm or 1310 nm ± 40 nm

Standard Size

2.6 × 2.6 × 10 mm3, θ = 45 °, Φ = 0 °

 

Note: Other sizes and specifications are available upon request.

 

 

                      

YVO4 Beam Displacer for Circulator

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